The Arizona DUI Court Process
The DUI Court Process can be a very intimidating process for anyone–especially for someone that has never been involved in the court process before. Mrs. Shah is extremely familiar with the Arizona DUI and Criminal Court processes throughout the entire State of Arizona. Mrs. Shah can help you navigate through this uncomfortable and complicated process.
During your initial court hearings, you very likely do not need to attend, Mrs. Shah or one of the Shah Law Firm’s experienced attorneys will attend on your behalf. Typically a DUI case takes several months to resolve as there are several steps that need to take place (obtaining reports, negotiating with the assigned prosecutor, etc.). It is also during this time that Mrs. Shah will be able to use her experience and best efforts to negotiate the best possible resolution of your DUI case.
In most cases, a resolution can be achieved without needing to go to trial. However, in certain cases, it may be more beneficial for you to proceed to trial. As an experienced trial attorney, Mrs. Shah can develop the best possible trial strategy and defense if you decide to take your case to trial.
10 Effective DUI Defense Options
If you have been arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, it’s natural to have a lot of worry about what’s going to happen to you. Some people believe that successfully fighting the charges against them is impossible, and that it’s best to simply plead guilty or no contest to driving under the influence and move on.
Making things easy for court officials, however, will not protect you against severe state-mandated penalties. Only mounting a sound DUI defense will give you the opportunity to avoid serious punishment. Fortunately, there are many possible grounds on which to do that.
Law enforcement officials, while well-meaning, are not perfect. Rather, they make mistakes all the time during DUI and DWI investigations – errors that open the way for you to successfully contest charges and avoid penalties. Following are some of the most effective methods commonly utilized in DUI cases.
1. Challenging The Legality Of The DUI Stop Outside of a DUI Checkpoint
Police cannot pull you over without reason. Rather, law enforcement must have “reasonable suspicion” that criminal activity has occurred. If this standard is met, an officer has the right to briefly detain you to complete a limited investigation. In the case of suspected DUI, this may include administering field sobriety tests and other attempts to determine whether there is probable cause to make an arrest.
Most DUI charges are the direct result of common legal infractions like:
- Traveling above the posted speed limit
- Weaving in and out of lanes of traffic
- Following another motorist too closely
- Driving with a burned-out headlight or turn signal
- Using the shoulder of a road as a lane
- Failing to observe a traffic light
- Making a wrong turn
- Driving very slowly or idling alongside the road
There are many additional legitimate reasons for police officers to make traffic stops, of course. What is critical to remember is that an officer must articulate a clear, reasonable cause for making a traffic stop in order for it to be legal. This reason must also be included in the incident report for an arrest.
If the stop that resulted in a driving under the influence arrest was not legal, the evidence collected during the course of the DUI investigation is not admissible in court. With all of the evidence thrown out, the state cannot make an effective case against you, and charges are likely to be dismissed by the court.
2. Disputing Suspicion You Were Under The Influence
During the course of a DUI investigation, a police officer will be very attuned to the appearance and behavior of the person who has been pulled over. An official might note the smell of drugs or alcohol, bloodshot eyes, slurred speech, and poor motor functioning. These are elements that an officer is likely to note in a report of the DUI arrest.
These and other traits, however, needn’t necessarily be related to the ingestion of alcohol. Additional factors that can lead to what might seem like alcohol use include:
- A medical condition
- Side effects of a medication that you have been prescribed
- Use of over-the-counter personal care products, including mouthwash.
It could be possible to show that factors unrelated to alcohol contributed to perceived signs of intoxication. It may also be possible to dispute that such signs were present at all, discrediting an officer’s arrest account. For example, footage from a dashboard camera may not match up with what’s in a report. Video from a police holding area may help also help in a case, as could testimony from a medical professional who administered a BAC test.
3. Questioning The Efficacy Of Field Sobriety Tests
Law enforcement officials commonly use field sobriety tests as a means to identify people who may be intoxicated. The problem, however, is that these assessments have been shown poor indicators of intoxication.
Many field sobriety assessments, including tests of a person’s ability to recite the alphabet backward or touch one’s nose, have been shown to be wholly unreliable. Even so-called standardized tests – the one-leg stand, the walk-and-turn, and the horizontal gaze nystagmus assessments – have been demonstrated to be flawed.
Many potential factors can lead to people performing poorly on field sobriety tests, including:
- Being overweight or having a physical ailment
- Poor footing or weather conditions
- Restrictive clothing or unstable footwear
- Poor coordination
Many additional factors can hurt a person’s performance in field sobriety tests. Given that these assessments are so unreliable as indicators of intoxication, it may be possible to discredit evidence collected during their administration. This may not necessarily result in a case being dismissed, but it can reduce the overall amount of evidence against you and cause credibility issues for the prosecution.
4. Challenging BAC Results From A Breathalyzer
Officers administered field sobriety tests to check if motorists demonstrate signs of impairment. If an official deems that the case, a roadside breath test is typically administered to evaluate a person’s blood alcohol level (BAC). Just as field sobriety assessments are flawed, however, so too can be the breath tests administered by law enforcement officials.
This comes as a surprise to many people. Breath tests are thought to be scientific – a trustable gauge of a person’s BAC level. However, while more reliable than the very subjective field sobriety assessments, breath tests often do deliver readings that don’t reflect actual amounts of consumed alcohol.
There are many potential reasons a breathalyzer device may provide heightened BAC readings. These include:
- Improper maintenance – Breath test equipment must be properly calibrated in order to deliver accurate results. Without careful, regular maintenance, a device can show that a person has an artificially inflated BAC level.
- Equipment malfunction – Even if a device is impeccably maintained at appropriate intervals, there is the potential for breath test equipment to simply fail. Studies have shown that devices can return fluctuating readings.
- User error – Clearly, it’s important that a BAC test be performed properly if BAC readings are to be accurate. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, whether user inexperience, carelessness, or some other factor plays a role.
- Health conditions – Some breath test tests are wrong when devices mistake naturally occurring bodily substances with ingested alcohol. People with certain health conditions and body traits could be affected by such errors.
- Use of over-the-counter products – Mouthwash and other health and hygiene products can also result in heightened BAC readings. Often this is due to a breath test’s inability to distinguish between different types of alcohol.
These are some of the most common DUI defense strategies that can be used to undermine the results of BAC testing, though there are others. Effectively calling into question breath tests may be done with the use of expert witnesses who are familiar with how the devices operate and their potential for delivering inaccurate results.
5. Challenging The Results Of Blood Tests
Blood tests to evaluate a person’s BAC are typically performed after a person has been arrested on suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or another drug. Tests are usually conducted at a medical facility, in a particular section of the police station, or in specialized law enforcement vehicles that may be present at DUI checkpoints.
Blood tests are widely regarded as the most reliable form of BAC testing that is available to law enforcement officials. A sample of blood is taken from an alleged DUI offender and tested in a lab setting. While more scientific than any other evaluative method in DUI cases, it is possible for errors during tests to cause false positives.
Potential issues that can skew the results of blood tests include:
- Unqualified or inexperienced testers – It requires knowledge and skill to properly draw and analyze a person’s blood. In states around the country, people who do this work must get proper training and obtain a license. Failure to complete required courses or a lapse in licensure can open the way to contesting BAC results.
- Outdated or poorly maintained equipment – Blood work, obviously, requires precision. No matter how qualified a professional might be, old or ill-kept equipment can result in artificially elevated BAC readings that force a person to face DUI charges.
- Chain-of-custody issues – Blood testing is a multi-stage process, and it’s critically important samples are collected, stored, and transferred according to best practices. Expert witnesses may be able to show that a breakdown in chain-of-custody protocols compromised the testing process.
Blood tests are the most reliable form of evaluating blood alcohol concentration as well as the most technical. Given that so much can go wrong in tests, it’s important to explore every option for questioning the results of testing and undermining the credibility of results.
Successfully challenging blood tests can be a critical moment in DUI cases. These BAC results are typically the strongest evidence that the prosecution has, and demonstrating that it’s not reliable can make the state’s entire case crumble. Often DUI charges are simply dismissed.
6. Showing A DUI Checkpoint Arrest Was Illegal
DUI checkpoints are very controversial in the United States. Many cases contesting the constitutionality of these roadway stops have made their way through the courts over the years with legal officials trying to determine whether checkpoints infringe on Fourth Amendment rights. As it stands, these roadblocks are utilized in more than 30 states.
While the legality of DUI checkpoints has been upheld in the Supreme Court, the circumstances under which law enforcement set up roadblocks are very prescribed. If these protocols are not observed in the course of a stop, it may be possible to have it deemed illegal. Requirements concerning DUI checkpoints include:
- Motorists must be chosen for stop in accordance with a uniform procedure – for example, pulling over every other care – that applies the full duration of the roadblock.
- The safety of drivers must be accounted for, including in the form of appropriate lighting and adequate notice of the roadblock ahead.
- A person’s constitutional privacy rights must be maintained throughout the entirety of a stop.
If any of the above provisions is violated during at a checkpoint, establishing the illegality of a stop may be a viable DUI defense. In these situations, DUI charges are typically dismissed given that all the evidence collected against an individual becomes inadmissible in court.
7. Asserting An Officer’s Failure To Mirandize
Every American is afforded Miranda rights under the law. People who are in custody must be informed that they are not required to make incriminating statements, that what they do say can be used against them, and that they have a right to an attorney. It is the legal obligation of law enforcement to inform detained persons of these rights prior to questioning.
If, in the course of making driving under the influence arrest, a police officer fails to Mirandize a driver, all evidence collected in the DUI investigation may be ruled inadmissible. With no evidence to make a case against the accused, the state is likely to drop the charges against a person.
8. Citing A Failure To Issue Implied Consent Warning
Implied consent laws in the U.S. require that motorists suspected of DUI consent to a chemical BAC test or risk a driver’s license suspension. A police officer may request this assessment if he or she deems that there is probable cause a driver is intoxicated. The important word here is request; an officer may not demand that an individual take a BAC, employ coercive techniques, or issue threats of any kind.
If an officer has acted inappropriately in the course of a DUI arrest, failing to properly issue the implied consent warning, any BAC results from the breath test are likely to be deemed inadmissible in legal proceedings related to an alleged offense. A chemical BAC test is usually among the most reliable forms of evidence; a ruling forbidding test result from being entered into evidence can be a huge boon to the defense of the accused.
9. Alleging Racial Profiling Or Other Misconduct
It is illegal for law enforcement to single out minorities for arrest, including when it comes to making DUI stops. Despite law enforcement claims of fairness, unfortunately, profiling behaviors occur on an everyday basis in police departments in urban and rural areas throughout the United States.
People who believe they have been arrested on the basis of race may have the opportunity to avoid the harsh potential punishments associated with driving under the influence of alcohol or another drug. Demonstrating in a court that a stop was race-based opens up the possibility the question a police officer’s motives in all aspects of a case. Report information on “intoxicated” behaviors, for example, may be been exaggerated.
10. Making A “Rising Blood Alcohol Content” Argument
Many people do not realize how long it takes for alcohol to be absorbed into the body. Every person’s body is different, of course, but peak BAC concentration is not typically reached until between 30 and 90 minutes after an alcoholic drink is consumed. This is because alcohol is absorbed into the body primarily through the small intestines, and it takes time for the bloodstream to carry the alcohol through the body.
This fact can have important implications for DUI arrests. If a person was arrested on suspicion of DUI after a chemical test showed a BAC of .08 percent or greater, it’s possible to show that – while a BAC was over the legal limit at the time of an arrest – it may not have been a time of driving. Rather, alcohol from the last-ingested drink may not have yet been in the bloodstream.
Getting The Legal Assistance You Need After A DUI
Given the seriousness of penalties that can result from a DUI conviction, the stakes are high in driving under the influence cases. Fortunately, there are viable opportunities to mount a sound defense against DUI charges. Building a strong case is not easy, however, and most people obtain the services of an experienced DUI attorney.
Beating DUI charges requires intensive knowledge of the law, access to critical investigative resources, and acumen for presenting arguments before legal officials. Most people who are not in the legal profession, simply lack the information needed to do this. Contact Arja Shah now.